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LA Auto Show 2020 Toyota Corolla Hybrid Debuts

first_imgToyota’s Hybrid Lineup Expands ExponentiallyWelcome to the 2020 Toyota Corolla Hybrid, the most fuel-efficient Corolla ever. After 53 years of being gasoline-only, Toyota’s best-selling compact now gets a hybrid power plant with projected fuel economy of 50+ mpg. With the success of the Prius and Camry Hybrid, it is a pretty safe bet that Toyota has high expectations for the Corolla Hybrid.Toyota’s hybrid system finally migrates to its most popular modelThe Corolla’s Toyota Hybrid Synergy drive technology, shared with the latest generation Prius, consists of a 1.8-liter four-cylinder engine and two motor/generators producing a combined 121 horsepower. The front-wheel drive Corolla also has a continuously variable transmission (CVT) with four driver-selectable drive modes: EV, Normal, Eco and Sport. If our experience with previous Toyota and Lexus hybrids is any indication, the 2020 Corolla Hybrid will perform with spirited acceleration (especially in the Sport mode) and high fuel efficiency when in the EV, Eco and Normal modes. The EV mode is for driving around at slow speeds in electric drive. The range is short, but makes for a great way to not use any gasoline when in parking lots, crowded streets, and even in stop-and-go highway traffic jams.The nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) battery is smaller and flatter than previous battery designs, so it fits nicely under the seats. This placement increases interior space for passengers and cargo, and drops the center of gravity, thus aiding handling. The Ni-MH battery is charged through regenerative braking and by the engine (no plugs). The energy recovery system takes wasted friction and heat from braking or coasting, converting its kinetic energy into stored electrical energy in the battery. The process of using and restoring electricity to the battery can be watched in real time on dash gauges.Tech, Safety Equipment IncreasesToyota’s adding tech and safety features as well as the hybrid systemThe standard Entune infotainment (information and entertainment) system comes with an 8.0-inch touchscreen and a six-speaker sound system, along with Apple CarPlay and Amazon Alexa. There also will be Siri Eyes Free and Bluetooth connectivity, with voice recognition, for hands-free telephone. A long list of advanced driver systems includes pre-collision and lane departure warning and full-speed dynamic radar rise control.The non-hybrid Corolla comes in both a sedan and hatchback. Initially the 2020 Corolla Hybrid will be in sedan form, arriving at dealers in Q2 2019. Look for a full Road Test review on Clean Fleet Report in the coming months.Photos by Lex AdamsRelated Stories You Might Enjoy—More LA Auto Show NewsRivian Electric Pickup/SUV Revealed2019 Toytoa Prius AWD DebutsVW Shows Cargo EV, Cargo e-BikeNissan Leaf Long Range Delayed Due To Scandal2019 Kia Niro EV Crossover Debut2020 Kia Soul EV ShownThe post LA Auto Show: 2020 Toyota Corolla Hybrid Debuts appeared first on Clean Fleet Report. Source: Electric, Hybrid, Clean Diesel & High-MPG Vehicleslast_img read more

Volkswagens Gigafactory Plans Threatened By LG Chem Objections

first_img VW Turns To SK Innovation As Cell Supplier For U.S. Electric Cars There is a risk that LG Chem could stop supplying Volkswagen Group with battery cells if the VW-SK Innovation starts production. Because LG Chem is currently the biggest battery supplier for Volkswagen, it would be devastating to the entire EV strategy.“LG Chem threatened, under certain circumstances, no longer deliver when VW with SK Innovation into production”As the reports remain unofficial, time will tell how and if Volkswagen will be able to diversify its supplier base.Source: manager-magazin.de via Electrek SK Plans To Double Investment At U.S. Battery Factory Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on February 22, 2019Categories Electric Vehicle News Source: Electric Vehicle News LG Chem puts pressure on VW?According to the latest news from Germany, Volkswagen encountered a conflict with its lithium-ion battery supplier LG Chem, which threatens its plans to build its own battery gigafactories in Germany.Volkswagen entered into a partnership with SK Innovation to build a battery plant in the U.S. and it was expected that the two could build a joint gigafactory-type of plant in Germany, but reportedly LG Chem has taken issue with the idea.Read also SK Innovation To Build $1.67 Billion Battery Plant In Georgialast_img read more

Tesla Model S and Model X sales crash ahead of anticipated upgrade

first_imgSource: Charge Forward Tesla’s Model S and Model X sales crashed by around 50% during the first quarter. A possible explanation is that buyers are waiting for an anticipated hardware upgrade and a possible design refresh. more…The post Tesla Model S and Model X sales crash ahead of anticipated upgrade and refresh appeared first on Electrek.last_img

The Future Is Now The Audi etron In Perspective

first_imgErnest Hemingway once wrote that “today is only one day in all the days that will ever be, but what will happen in all the other days that ever come can depend on what you do today.”Source: CleanTechnica Car Reviews RSS Feedlast_img

News Pickup Electrification a Hot Topic in US

first_imgSource: Electric, Hybrid, Clean Diesel & High-MPG Vehicles GM/Ford Battle Over Rivian; Tesla Teases Pickup NewsPickup trucks are a unique American phenomenon. Whileworking trucks are found all over the world, nowhere are they best-sellers likein the U.S., where the top three sales spots are occupied by vehicles namedF-150, Ram and Silverado. Those three pickup nameplates (out of 12 total pickupsand more than 300 total models for sale) accounted for more than 11 percent ofthe total sales during the first four months of 2019. This is not the face of the new F-150; Ford’s interested in what’s underneathConventional wisdom says pickup buyers are conservative andresistant to change and new technology, but that bit of consensus thinking isbeing challenged. During the past month Ford announced it was investing $500million into a partnership with Rivian, a Michigan-based company that hasalready developed a prototype all-electric pickup and SUV. That investmentfollowed on a larger one from Amazon and edged out General Motors, which wasalso widely reported to have been considering a similar investment. Ford saidit would use Rivian’s skateboard EV platform to accelerate the Blue Oval’selectric pickup plans. Before the full-electrics arrive we may see a hybrid RangerRivian’s pickup is due to hit the market late next year (2020) with a starting price of $69,000, three battery choices and up to 400 miles of range. It’s aggressively marketing itself as a real pickup with power and off-road capabilities. Ford’s Rivian investment release indicated that a previously announced electric F-150 may come to market without Rivian technology. Ford’s midsize pickup, the Ranger, is rumored to be planning to offer a hybrid option in 2020, following the lead of the Explorer SUV. GM earlier said it would also develop its own electric version of its pickup line, but has been vague about details, other than a hint that it might debut as a GMC.    Another Tesla TeaseWhen Elon Musk introduced his Semi Class8 truck, he flashed an image of pickup version of the big truck. Anotherteaser went out at the end of the Model Y announcement. Musk was talking aboutthe pickup again last week as he tweeted that it would be better than both thebest-selling Ford F-150 and a Porsche 911 sports car. This was all Elon revealed of Tesla’s coming pickupMusk also said that the starting price for the Tesla pickup would be less than $50,000, Assuming that’s a stripped model (as seen with the Model 3), that would seem to be a fair price for such a truck. For anyone who hasn’t shopped the pickup market lately (and Clean Fleet Report has some road tests coming that will get you up to date), that’s a moderate price for a well-equipped pickup. Many models run much higher, even though basic work trucks still start under $30,000. The range of the truck could be up to 500 miles, but no indication of what it will actually look like when it’s revealed later this year.It’s clear the pickup market is going to see some electric models–soon. We’ll follow the action and see what kind of impact they have. Related Stories You Might Enjoy—Real Pickups You Can Buy & Future TrucksRoad Test: 2019 Ford RangerFord: Electric F-150 ComingNews: GM Hints of Future Electric PickupNews: Tesla SemiReveal in 2017last_img read more

Hubject partners with four Chinese network operators adding 35000 chargers to its

first_imgHubject,the Berlin-based company that has developed an interoperability platform for EVchargers, has signed agreements with Chinese charging network operators CarEnergyNet,YKCharge, EVCDX, and Kakuka, adding more than 35,000 chargers to its eRoamingnetwork.Based in southern China’s Shenzhen, CarEnergyNet operates nearly10,000 charging points. YKCharge, headquartered in central China, has deployedmore than 2,000 charging points themselves and operates more than 25,000charging points as a PaaS provider. EVCDX, located in Beijing, currently offersmore than 250 charging points. Shanghai’s Kakuka has deployed more than 100 chargingpoints in the city and provides hardware and charging solutions to third-partyvendors.Since entering the Chinese market in July 2018, Hubject hasadded more than 35,000 charging points to its global charging network.Hubject CEO Christian Hahn said, “Both in scale and speed,China is electrifying the transport sector faster than anywhere else in theworld. Therefore, China is very important for offering our eRoaming platformand services on a global scale. Hubject has the experience and market knowledgeto develop and support conditions for interoperability between chargingnetworks in China, and also to offer our services anywhere that electricvehicles will be.”Source: Hubject Source: Electric Vehicles Magazine Author Liberty Access TechnologiesPosted on June 20, 2019Categories Electric Vehicle Newslast_img read more

Rivian Attracts Talents From Ford Tesla Faraday Future And Apple

first_imgIts HR department is quite busy these days…Source: Electric Vehicle Newslast_img

Cantey Hanger Elects Seven New Partners

first_img Remember me Cantey Hanger has promoted seven attorneys to the partnership. They are:Mary Hazelwood Barkley, whose practice focuses on the areas of eminent domain/property rights, commercial litigation and appellate law. She is in the firm’s Fort Worth office and is a 2005 graduate of St. Mary’s University School of Law.Brad D’Amico, whose practice focuses on securities and oil and gas, with an emphasis on investment vehicle formation and A&D transactions. He is in the firm’s Dallas office.Paul Hendry II, whose practice focuses on banking and real estate. He is in the firm . . .You must be a subscriber to The Texas Lawbook to access this content. Password Lost your password?center_img Username Not a subscriber? Sign up for The Texas Lawbook.last_img read more

Winsteads Andrew Rosell Named to Cook Childrens Health Foundation Board of Trustees

first_img Password Username Remember me Rosell, a graduate of SMU Dedman School of Law, represents private investment managers and sponsors of private investment funds . . .You must be a subscriber to The Texas Lawbook to access this content.center_img Lost your password? Not a subscriber? Sign up for The Texas Lawbook.last_img

SR 243 Closed for Accident TuesdayCity of Wenatchee Rescheduling Meeting on College

first_imgState Route 243 was closed for about an hour Tuesday just south of the Wanapum Dam due to a car versus semi-truck accident. The Washington State Patrol says the truck was stopped for a construction zone when a 1980 Chevrolet Chevette ran into the back of it. The driver, a 62-year-old Mattawa man was airlifted to Central Washington Hospital. His condition is not known. The State Patrol is investigating the cause and says charges are pending.last_img

Genetic polymorphisms linked with muscle injury and stiffness

first_imgSep 20 2018To test whether sex-related genetic polymorphisms are associated with muscle injury and stiffness, Noriyuki Fuku from Juntendo University and colleagues report in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise that ESR1 rs2234693 polymorphism is associated with both muscle injury and muscle stiffness. These findings suggest a role of estrogen in lowering muscle stiffness by suppressing collagen synthesis, as well as having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Research on sports injuries. Preventing injuries in sport is important, and the determination of risk factors, both genetic and environmental, is instrumental to this end. Muscle injury, and in particular hamstring strain, is the most common sports injury, and muscle stiffness is one of the risk factors associated with it.Because muscle stiffness is more common in men than in women, it is likely that it is determined not only by environmental factors, but also by a sex-related genetic polymorphism, that is, by a variation in a specific gene. The difference in the likeliness of muscle injury in men and women might be related to the presence of sex-related hormones and their receptors, the molecules that bind to them. In particular, there is evidence that estrogen, a female sex hormone, influence muscle stiffness. Therefore, the gene that encodes estrogen target receptors, the estrogen receptor-α gene (ESR1) has two functional polymorphisms (called rs2234693 and rs9340799), which might influence muscle injury due to muscle stiffness.To test whether these polymorphisms are associated with muscle injury and stiffness, Noriyuki Fuku from Juntendo University and colleagues  run two studies, one on top-level athletes and the other on physically active young people, identifying one polymorphism that has a role in determining the likeliness of injury. The findings are published in the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. The researchers evaluated, using questionnaires, the muscle injury history of over 1,300 Japanese top-level athletes (many more than in previous studies). They then measured the stiffness of the hamstring muscles of 261 physically active young adults using ultrasounds. For all participants, the polymorphisms under study were analyzed using DNA from samples of saliva.Related StoriesStudy: Treatment of psychosis can be targeted to specific genetic mutationStudy: Causes of anorexia are likely metabolic and psychologicalFungal infection study identifies specific genetic vulnerability among Hmong peopleFor the top-level athletes, age, weight and height were roughly the same for athletes who did and did not sustain a muscle injury. In terms of genotype, the polymorphism of rs2234693 was found to be significantly associated with the likeliness of injuries, unlike the polymorphism of rs9340799, which did not show any specific association. For the part of the study involving normally active young people, significant sex-related differences in the stiffness of the hamstring muscle were observed, and also in this case this was associated with the polymorphism of rs2234693. People with the C allele had lower stiffness of the hamstring muscle than people with the T allele. For rs9340799 polymorphism, A/G genotypes showed no influence. Relationship between a genetic polymorphism in the ESR1 T/C (rs2234693) and history of muscle injury. The general conclusion is that ESR1 rs2234693 polymorphism is associated with both muscle injury and muscle stiffness. In particular, the C allele is associated with protection against muscle injury and lower muscle stiffness, whereas the T allele is not. The C allele is associated with higher estrogen action, thus these findings seem to point towards a role of estrogen in lowering muscle stiffness by suppressing collagen synthesis, on top of having anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. The next step will be to investigate muscle stiffness while muscles are contracting rather than resting, the condition under which injury normally happens. Relationship between genetic polymorphism in the ESR1 T/C (rs223493) and muscle stiffness. Source:https://www.juntendo.ac.jp/english/last_img read more

Effort to prevent coywolf hybrids is working study finds

first_imgBiologists have successfully prevented coyotes from destroying the genetic integrity of red wolves, one of the world’s most endangered canines, a new study concludes. The finding comes as state and federal officials mull whether to phase out the conservation effort, which has involved sterilizing coyotes to prevent the births of wolf-coyote hybrids, as a result of concerns about cost and long-term effectiveness.With roughly 50 animals left in the wild, red wolves (Canis rufus) live on just a single peninsula on the Atlantic coast of North Carolina. In 1973, the population dwindled to 14 wolves; the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) then captured the wolves to establish a captive breeding population. In 1987, biologists rereleased red wolves into the wild in North Carolina’s Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge. The fragile population now inhabits some 700,000 hectares of public and private land on the Albemarle Peninsula. The main threat to the wolves comes from coyotes, which mate with the wolves to produce fertile “coywolf” hybrids. This genetic dilution is a recent problem; coyotes migrated into the region after the FWS biologists reintroduced the wolf. In 1999, biologists started sterilizing coyotes to prevent hybridization. The sterilizations are “not to control the coyote population size … it’s purely to keep their DNA from being passed to a red wolf offspring,” says ecologist Eric Gese of Utah State University, Logan, a lead author of the new study and a member of the panel overseeing red wolf recovery efforts. Biologists also wanted the sterile coyotes to act as “placeholders” that would occupy territory until they were kicked out by a wolf.The 15-year sterilization program has done just that, Gese and colleagues conclude in this month’s Biological Conservation. From 1999 to 2013, red wolves displaced or killed 51 out of 182 sterile “placeholder” coyotes, and managers removed an additional 16. This led to red wolf litters outnumbering hybrid litters every year. And no “placeholder” coyote ever displaced a wolf. Without this intervention, Gese says, the purebred red wolf would likely be gone.The study highlights a “useful and effective technique of reducing introgression of coyote genes into red wolf populations,” says Dave Mech, a wolf biologist and senior scientist with the Biological Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in St. Paul, who was not involved with the research.The question now is whether it will continue. Private landowners and North Carolina officials have complained about the impact of playing host to a protected species, and some critics have questioned whether the red wolf is actually a hybrid between coyotes and gray wolves.Meanwhile, an independent evaluation of the red wolf program released in November 2014 by the Wildlife Management Institute (WMI) questioned whether the conservation effort can succeed. Hunting and conflicts between wolves and landowners continue to threaten the animals, it noted, and hands-on management of red wolves alongside coyotes is costly. And hopes that limiting hybridization would allow the red wolf population to grow and reclaim large swaths of territory from coyotes haven’t been fully realized.“The future is problematic,” says biologist Douglas Smith, a project leader for the Wolf Restoration Project in Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming who served on the WMI review. “Problematic doesn’t mean there is not a road to success, but they have been stalled at around 100 wolves.”In June 2015, FWS announced it would halt reintroducing red wolves to the wild while it assessed the program. Among other things, scientists are now trying to determine whether there is a red wolf population size that could persevere alongside the coyotes without human management, and whether there is more suitable habitat than the Albermarle Peninsula. “This is the problem wolves have everywhere: They live fine next to people, but people don’t live fine next to them,” Smith says.Conservation groups oppose FWS stopping the red wolf management effort during the assessment and hope that the program ultimately continues. A decision is expected in 2016. Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! 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Subsurface map of moon reveals origin of mysterious impact crater rings

first_imgSome 3.8 billion years ago, Mare Orientale got started with a bang. A 930-kilometer-wide impact basin perched on the moon’s visible edge, Orientale resembles a bull’s-eye, with a smooth interior encircled by three rough rings. For decades, scientists have debated the significance of these rings, which are found around the largest impact basins on the moon, Mars, and Earth. Do any of the rings match the original crater rim left by the striking asteroid or comet? Now, a new subsurface moon map from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, published today in Science, suggests that the answer is no. Four years ago, as GRAIL’s two spacecraft neared the end of a 1-year orbital mission with a planned crash into the lunar surface, they measured Orientale from a scant altitude of 2 kilometers. At such close range, the spacecraft were exceptionally sensitive to tiny changes in the moon’s gravity caused by buried rocks of different density–giving the GRAIL team a picture of the subsurface, and a better idea of how the impact actually went down. They found that the Orientale strike hollowed out a crater some 320 to 460 kilometers wide—smaller than any of the rings. Within an hour, the crater’s steep walls toppled inward. Hot mantle rocks, rebounding in the void like the splash of a stone in water, rose up into a central tower as high as 140 kilometers. A stiffer crust, riding on top of the mantle rocks, cracked and settled to form the two outer rings. The central tower’s subsequent collapse piled up into the innermost ring. Earlier this year in the Gulf of Mexico, scientists drilled into the dinosaur-killing Chicxulub impact crater to show that a similar process occurred on Earth. Beyond settling the mystery of the rings, the GRAIL researchers expect that their map will help refine the models that connect the speed and size of impactors to the scars they leave across the solar system.last_img read more

Got milk Even the first mammals knew how to suckle

first_img By Gretchen VogelJul. 17, 2018 , 4:05 PM PARIS—Mammals suck. The ability to suckle milk is a defining characteristic of the group, and it is no small feat of evolution. Nursing—as well as drinking through a straw—requires complex anatomy to seal off the airway every time we suck and swallow.But one branch of mammals doesn’t suckle: the egg-laying monotremes, which include today’s platypus and echidna, or spiny anteater. These animals lack nipples. Their babies instead lap or slurp milk from patches on their mother’s skin. Monotremes are thought to have diverged from other mammals roughly 190 million years ago, so most paleontologists figured that suckling evolved after that split.Now, a close look at modern animals and key fossils from before the split suggests monotreme ancestors could suckle after all, but the animals later lost the ability as their mouths evolved to eat hard-shelled prey. The finding “puts a new light on monotremes” and suggests suckling was part of the original mammalian package, says paleontologist and functional anatomist Alfred “Fuzz” Crompton of Harvard University, who led the new studies. Got milk? Even the first mammals knew how to suckle These baby echidnas, like their platypus cousins, lick or slurp their milk from their mother’s skin. Email Ben Nottidge/Alamy Stock Photo center_img The work is “incredibly interesting and really important” for understanding mammalian evolution, says neurophysiologist Rebecca German of Northeast Ohio Medical University in Rootstown. “They are beginning to understand the part of the anatomy that is critical to infant feeding.”Previous research by Crompton and others has identified a suite of muscles that play a key role in suckling. One, called the tensor veli palatini, stretches from near the base of the ears to the edges of the soft palate, the tissue that forms the back part of the roof of the mouth. When you suck on a straw, this muscle pulls the soft palate taut so your tongue can form a tight seal with the roof of your mouth. When the front of the tongue drops, the mouth becomes an area of low pressure and you draw liquid in.More recently, to better understand how suckling evolved, Crompton and his colleagues analyzed the heads of North American opossums, platypuses, and monitor lizards, as well as fossil skulls. At the 5th International Paleontological Congress here last week, Crompton’s co-author, research technician Catherine Musinsky, described the anatomy of two mammalian ancestors: Thrinaxodon, which lived roughly 250 million years ago, and Brasilitherium, which lived about 220 million years ago, both before the first common ancestor of living mammals. (That animal is thought to have lived in the early Jurassic, which began about 200 million years ago.)Modern reptiles lack the tensor veli palatini and it seems Thrinaxodon didn’t have one either. But in Brasilitherium, the researchers found that the shape of the bones and the scars where muscles attached suggest that a primitive version of the muscle was present. That, along with other evidence, led them to the surprising conclusion that this ancient mammal relative could probably form a tight seal between its tongue and palate and might have suckled. The idea “is very well supported,” by the researchers’ combination of modern anatomy and fossil evidence, says paleontologist Zhe-Xi Luo of the University of Chicago in Illinois, who has also closely examined Brasilitherium.To explore monotreme anatomy in more detail, the researchers also painstakingly sectioned and scanned the head of a modern platypus. Although these animals branched off from other mammals well after Brasilitherium, they have lost the tensor veli palatini. Instead, their mouth and jaw have evolved to grind up the hard shells of crustaceans they scoop off river bottoms with their flat snouts. They move their lower jaw from side to side to grind their prey with rough pads on the tongue and palate, which have replaced teeth. These adaptations mean the platypus can’t form the tight seal required to suckle.Given that suckling is one of the defining characteristics of mammals, “It’s a bit surprising that one of the first groups to branch off lost it again,” Crompton says.Luo agrees. Because suckling allows newborns to efficiently access high-quality, high-calorie food, platypus ancestors faced a potentially expensive trade-off when they gave it up for specialized feeding, he says. For example, licking milk from their mothers’ skin exposes the animals to a higher risk of infection. But such drawbacks may have led to other adaptations, Musinsky noted: Researchers have studied platypus milk for its potential antimicrobial properties.German adds that Crompton and Musinsky’s approach offers a valuable way to understand how suckling behavior evolved. “Breasts don’t fossilize,” she says. “And there aren’t going to be many fossil tongues … so anything that we can extract in terms of comparative information is incredibly important.” Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! 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Top stories Brazilian museum burns DNA from the high seas and multicultural

first_img Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Email ‘It was a foretold tragedy’—fire destroys Brazil’s National Museum and its prized science collectionsA fire last Sunday at the National Museum of Brazil in Rio de Janeiro destroyed one of the country’s most important scientific collections. No one was injured, but the blaze ravaged its massive archives and collections, numbering about 20 million items by some estimates. The interior of the museum was mostly wood and had no sprinkler system, and many scientists blamed chronic government underfunding for the disaster.U.N. talks to tackle tough question: Who should benefit from DNA collected from the high seas? Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Top stories: Brazilian museum burns, DNA from the high seas, and multicultural medieval warriors Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country United Nations negotiators are meeting in New York City this week to begin formally discussing an international agreement to protect the high seas. A north-south split has developed on the issue of bioprospecting, the race to discover and patent valuable genes, most of which come from bacteria and other life found on the sea floor. Developing countries want to create a pact that forces richer, developed countries—generally those that do the bioprospecting—to pay into a global fund that would compensate other nations. That’s not going down well with countries like the United States, Russia, and Japan.1400-year-old warrior burial ground reveals German fighters came from near and farNew analysis has shed some light on a 1400-year-old burial site filled with ornate grave goods and the bodies of 13 warriors and children discovered more than 50 years ago by German construction workers. By studying the chemical traces in the bones, researchers found the medieval warriors were surprisingly cosmopolitan, with some born locally and others hailing from far-off parts of Europe. One possibility, though unproven, is that some of these outsiders were child hostages.European science funders ban grantees from publishing in paywalled journals Frustrated with the slow transition toward open access in scientific publishing, 11 national funding organizations in Europe turned up the pressure this week. As of 2020, the informal group will require every paper resulting from research funded by its members to be freely available from the moment of publication. They will no longer allow the 6- or 12-month delays that many subscription journals now require, and they will ban publication in so-called hybrid journals.To grow bigger antlers, these elk risk life and limbFor female elk, there’s nothing sexier than two 250-kilogram male suitors tussling for her favor, their 1.2-meter-tall antlers locked in a battle of strength and determination. But growing such powerful racks is risky, according to a new study, because males must shed their previous headgear early in the season to do so—putting them at risk of being killed by wolves. (left to right): LEO CORREA/AP PHOTO; PASQUALE VASSALLO/GETTY IMAGES; LANDESMUSEUM WÜRTTEMBERG, P. FRANKENSTEIN/H. ZWIETASCH By Frankie SchembriSep. 7, 2018 , 5:20 PMlast_img read more

Historians expose early scientists debt to the slave trade

first_img CARIBBEAN ISLANDS By Sam KeanApr. 4, 2019 , 10:00 AM Britain NORTH AMERICA Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe James Delbourgo, Rutgers University Some historians now refer to those private and institutional collections as the “big science” of their day. Scholars studied those centralized repositories and then circulated accounts of their research to other scientists. Linnaeus drew on such accounts when putting together Systema Naturae in 1735, the book that introduced his famous binomial naming system for flora and fauna.A few physical sciences also piggybacked on the slave trade. Slave labor built the first major observatory in the Southern Hemisphere, in Cape Town, South Africa. Astronomers such as Edmond Halley solicited observations of the moon and stars from slave ports, and geologists collected rocks and minerals there.Even a field as rarefied as celestial mechanics benefited from slavery. When developing his theory of gravity, Newton studied ocean tides, knowing that the gravitational tug of the moon causes them. Newton needed tide readings from all over the globe, and one crucial set of readings came from French slave ports in Martinique. Delbourgo says, “Newton himself, who’s really the paradigm figure of an isolated, nontraveling, sitting-at-his-desk genius, had access to numbers he wouldn’t have had access to without the Atlantic slave trade.”Museums grapple with the pastMany natural history specimens with ties to the slave trade eventually ended up in museums. When Petiver died in 1718, a fellow naturalist in London named Hans Sloane snapped up his collection. Sloane had collected on slave plantations in Jamaica, and he married into a slaving family whose money enabled more collecting. In 1727, he succeeded Newton as president of the Royal Society (which itself invested in slaving companies).When Sloane died in 1753, he willed his collection, including Petiver’s goods, to the British government, and it became the foundation of the British Museum in London. The museum later split into several entities. Many of Sloane’s specimens went to the Natural History Museum, where they remain today. Specimens collected through the slave trade also ended up at the Oxford University Herbaria, Royal Society, and Chelsea Physic Garden, among other places, Murphy reports.Representatives for those institutes say it’s difficult to put numbers on how many of their specimens have ties to slavery. In some cases, they haven’t gone through and digitized the records yet, and many old specimens have vague or fragmentary records anyway, making their provenance obscure. But documents from the 18th and 19th centuries attest to thousands upon thousands of items pouring into Europe. Smeathman alone sent 600 species of plants and 710 species of insects back to England, often with several individuals per species. (One of Smeathman’s patrons complained about the glut of bugs, writing that Smeathman had sent too many to unpack: “My House could not possibly contain one half.”) And although many old specimens have either disintegrated or been lost, at least some with ties to slavery probably survive in almost every institute in Europe with natural history collections dating back a few centuries. Trade routes West central Africa Kathleen Murphy, California Polytechnic State University Portugal At the dawn of the 1700s, European science seemed poised to conquer all of nature. Isaac Newton had recently published his monumental theory of gravity. Telescopes were opening up the heavens to study, and Robert Hooke and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes were doing the same for the miniature world. Fantastic new plants and animals were pouring in from Asia and the Americas. But one of the most important scientists alive then was someone few people have ever heard of, an apothecary and naturalist named James Petiver. And he was important for a startling reason: He had good connections within the slave trade.Although he rarely left London, Petiver ran a global network of dozens of ship surgeons and captains who collected animal and plant specimens for him in far-flung colonies. Petiver set up a museum and research center with those specimens, and he and visiting scientists wrote papers that other naturalists (including Carl Linnaeus, the father of taxonomy) drew on. Between one-quarter and one-third of Petiver’s collectors worked in the slave trade, largely because he had no other options: Few ships outside the slave trade traveled to key points in Africa and Latin America. Petiver eventually amassed the largest natural history collection in the world, and it never would have happened without slavery.Petiver wasn’t unique. By examining scientific papers, correspondence between naturalists, and the records of slaving companies, historians are now seeing new connections between science and slavery and piecing together just how deeply intertwined they were. “The biggest surprise is, for a topic that has been ignored for so long, how much there was once I started digging,” says Kathleen Murphy, a science historian at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo who’s writing a book about the topic. She adds, “There’s a tendency to think about the history of science in this—I don’t want to say triumphant, but—progressive way, that it’s always a force for good. We tend to forget the ways in which that isn’t the case.” Tobacco, rice, cotton Africans shipped to America Those connections aren’t just ancient history. Thousands of specimens collected through the slave trade still reside in places such as the Natural History Museum in London, and they’re still used in genetic and taxonomic research. Yet few people using the collections know of their origins.All of which casts an uncomfortable shadow on what’s often viewed as a heroic era in science. “We do not often think of the wretched, miserable, and inhuman spaces of slave ships as simultaneously being spaces of natural history,” Murphy writes in The William and Mary Quarterly. “Yet Petiver’s museum suggests that this is exactly what they were.”Compromises to gain access to distant landsSlavery is as old as civilization, but the transatlantic slave trade between the 1500s and 1800s was particularly brutal. Estimates vary, but at least 10 million Africans were enslaved, with roughly half dying on the way to slave ports or on voyages across the ocean. Statistics alone can’t capture the cruelty and squalor of slave ships, though. Men and women were chained up for weeks in hot, filthy holds, where diseases ran rampant and punishment for disobedience was harsh. Sharks reportedly followed ships on journeys, having learned that a slave or two would probably be tossed overboard—or commit suicide—at some point.Why did scientists align themselves with that horror? Access. European governments did sometimes sponsor scientific expeditions, but most ships visiting Africa and the Americas were private vessels engaged in the “triangular trade.” That three-way exchange sent guns and manufactured goods to Africa; slaves to the Americas; and dyes, drugs, and sugar back to Europe. To gain access to Africa and the Americas, scientists had to hitch rides on slave ships. Upon arrival, the naturalists also relied on slavers for food, shelter, mail, equipment, and local transport.France, Portugal, and the Netherlands captured and sold slaves, Murphy notes. But most historians studying science and slavery focus on Great Britain, which in the 1700s boasted the world’s biggest and most powerful fleets, had adventurous scientists and collectors, and was a major participant in the slave trade. Spain controlled most of South and Central America then, but it lacked colonies in Africa and therefore couldn’t import slaves directly. So it contracted that job out to various groups, including the British in the early 1700s, buying up to 4800 Africans per year. SOUTH AMERICA 1 Guns, textiles Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) THE JOHN CARTER BROWN LIBRARY AT BROWN UNIVERSITY Milllion Gold Coast Windward Coast Newton himself, who’s really the paradigm figure of an isolated, nontraveling, sitting-at-his-desk genius, had access to numbers he wouldn’t have had access to without the Atlantic slave trade. 3 As detailed in the 2018 book Henry Smeathman, the Flycatcher: Natural History, Slavery, and Empire in the Late Eighteenth Century, by historian Deirdre Coleman of the University of Melbourne in Australia, Smeathman began his journey as a foe of slavery, vowing to tell the truth about “those little-known and much misrepresented people, the Negroes.” And as a scientist, he considered himself superior to the ignorant, crude slavers he encountered in Sierra Leone. (For their part, the slavers thought him barmy for coming all the way to Africa to hunt for bugs and weeds.)But Smeathman was utterly dependent on those men for food, protection, and transportation. He also got lonely and started to socialize with them, playing whist and backgammon and even golf on a rugged, two-hole course on an offshore island. Soon he was hunting goats and enjoying grog-soaked feasts on the beach with the slavers. By 1774, he was working for a slaving company based in Liverpool because it greased the wheels for shipping specimens; he even started to trade slaves in exchange for supplies for his expeditions. Bit by bit, compromise by compromise, Smeathman became part of the system he once despised.Smeathman and others also relied on slavers to haul their precious specimens to Great Britain, packing them onto the same ships as enslaved Africans. (Few ships sailed straight back to Europe from Africa, so most specimens reached England via the Caribbean.) Perhaps not surprisingly, given how they treated their human cargo, the ships’ crews had a spotty record in caring for fragile bugs, plants, and animal skins. If the sunlight, heat, humidity, and saltwater didn’t destroy the specimens, the worms, ants, and rodents onboard usually did. Careless sailors might also smash the specimens by accident or for sport.Of the items that arrived safely in England, naturalists were most excited about exotic finds such as ostrich eggs, Goliath beetles, butterflies, sloths, and armadillos. But the real treasures, Murphy writes, were drugs such as cinchona bark, which contains quinine, and dyes such as deep-blue indigo and bright-red cochineal. The latter, which is extracted from beetles, was worth more per ounce than silver.Scientific studies of drugs and dyes often opened new opportunities for slave traders. Merchants eagerly sought natural resources to exploit abroad and consulted scientists about the best way to hunt for and cultivate them. Quinine and other drugs gleaned from tropical locales, Murphy notes, also helped Europeans survive there. And the safer and more profitable a colony was, the more its commercial activity, including slavery, thrived, creating new demand for slaves. Scientific research, then, not only depended on colonial slavery, but enabled it and helped expand its reach.The tainted origins of many cabinets of curiosityOf all the scientific fields, natural history benefited most from the slave trade, especially botany and entomology. One disciple of Linnaeus reported collecting three species new to science within 15 minutes on his first excursion in Sierra Leone. The bounty of plants astounded him.Doctors affiliated with slavery also collected human remains. “The trade in natural curiosities was widespread, and body parts were definitely part of that,” says Carolyn Roberts, a historian of science and assistant professor of African American studies at Yale University who’s writing a book about the slave trade and medicine. “Doctors would send things to Britain, especially if they had a case they found interesting.” Examples of interesting items included polyps cut from the hands of slaves, patches of dried skin, a fetus taken after a miscarriage, and, according to one old catalog, “stones extracted from the vagina of a negro African girle.”Those bugs and plants and bits of human beings often ended up in wealthy gentlemen’s “cabinets of curiosity,” jammed next to Roman coins and gems and whatever else tickled their fancy. Other specimens landed in universities or scholarly institutes. Colonizing nations Bight of Biafra Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Country When British slave ships arrived in Latin America, the crews had strict orders to stay at port and not poke around, mostly because Spain wanted to protect its monopoly on certain lucrative natural resources. But naturalists such as Petiver knew Spain had no way to enforce that rule—the territories had too little oversight. So they cultivated crew members to collect specimens on the sly.Murphy’s research shows Petiver employed mostly ship surgeons, who cared for slaves on the voyage across the ocean. The surgeons were scientifically educated, she says, and had plenty of free time at ports such as Cartagena, in modern Colombia, and Portobelo, in modern Panama, while their fellow crew members sold slaves and provisioned the ships. Petiver usually supplied recruits with kits that included jars for insects and brown paper for pressing plants. Compensation included books, medicines, and cash.Strikingly, some naturalists also instructed their contacts abroad to train slaves as collectors. Slaves often knew about specimens that Europeans didn’t and visited areas that Europeans wouldn’t. Those slaves virtually never got credit for their work, though Petiver did offer to pay them a half-crown ($18 today) for every dozen insects or 12 pence ($7) for every dozen plants.Petiver never collected overseas himself, but some scientists did, and they often found themselves in morally compromising positions. Henry Smeathman, an idealistic English naturalist, sailed for a slave colony in Sierra Leone in December 1771 and collected for the likes of Joseph Banks, an adviser to King George and longtime president of the Royal Society. Among other activities, Smeathman studied the massive termite mounds in western Africa, which stand up to 4 meters high. He had rollicking adventures breaking the mounds open and fending off attacks from angry, biting termite soldiers. Historians expose early scientists’ debt to the slave trade Sugar, molasses Email EUROPE Spain The Netherlands NHM IMAGES There’s a tendency to think about the history of science in this—I don’t want to say triumphant, but—progressive way, that it’s always a force for good. We tend to forget the ways in which that isn’t the case. Sierra Leone When people were traded like goods In the “triangular trade” of the 16th through 19th centuries, millions of people were shipped to the Americas as slaves, raw materials were transported to Europe, and manufactured goods went to Africa. The three-way trade provided European collectors access to specimens from Africa and the Americas. 2 France Bight of Benin In addition to his own collecting, Hans Sloane (pictured) bought up the collections of other naturalists, many of whom used slave ships to reach far-flung places. When Sloane died in 1753, his specimens became the founding collection of the British Museum. They later ended up in London’s Natural History Museum. (MAP) AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE, 1500–1870/PEARSON EDUCATION, INC., ADAPTED BY N. DESAI/SCIENCE; (DATA) TRANS-ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE DATABASE/EMORY CENTER FOR DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP AFRICA James Delbourgo, a historian at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey, who has written extensively about slavery and science, agrees. He argues that the belief in the progressive nature of science has made historians reluctant to take a critical look at its past. “This is a hard story for us to deal with,” he says. He adds that academic specialization also prevented many people from seeing what, in retrospect, seem like obvious connections: “Slave trade historians don’t know about science, and vice versa.” European scientists in South America often relied on black or native people to collect for them. In an illustration from 1806, three Africans in Suriname kill and flay a gigantic snake while a European scientist stands back and directs. Southeast Africa Senegambia Those collections aren’t just antiquarian curiosities. Scientists still consult them to construct phylogenies and do taxonomic work: Many of the collections contain type specimens, the first described individual of a species against which all other individuals are compared. The collections are also invaluable for studying plant domestication, historic climate change, and shifts in geographical distributions of species. Scientists have even extracted DNA from specimens to study how plants and animals have evolved across the centuries.Most scientists, however, remain unaware of the origins of the collections. “Very few people think about how [specimens] were collected, whether they were collected through slave trade routes or otherwise,” says Stephen Harris, a curator at the Oxford University Herbaria, which houses some of Sloane’s goods. “They’re simply data points.”In an email, Mark Carine, a curator at the Natural History Museum, noted that institutions such as his have a broader role than just preserving specimens. “As curators, we have a responsibility not only to care for our collections and make them available for research but also to facilitate an understanding of their significance and relevance today.” He adds that Sloane’s collection “is not simply a biological record; it is also a resource for understanding the social and historical context within which science developed, and we are certainly keen to continue working with researchers across disciplines to better understand this.”Still, Murphy and Delbourgo say that even some curators are oblivious to the histories of their collections, and Murphy encountered one who dismissed her work outright. Delbourgo emphasizes that his historical research “isn’t an attack on museums” and that he knows museum staff are often “under-resourced and overworked.” But, he adds, “Museums have been bad” about acknowledging the dubious origins of many items. “They have dragged their feet enormously.”Now that the link between early science and slavery has come to light, an important question remains: What should scientists do about it?Historians say acknowledgment is a start: In research papers, scientists should mention how specimens were gathered. Taking the origin of specimens into account can also improve the research itself, especially given the paucity of collecting records in some cases. For example, Murphy mentions that the slave trade can help explain the geographic distributions of certain specimens. African plants, for instance, wouldn’t have been collected from all over the continent, but from specific points along the coast—the ports where countries were shipping slaves.”From a scientific point of view, your specimen is essentially a piece of evidence,” Harris adds, “and the more you know about the provenance of that piece of evidence and the better understanding you have … the better you can use it within your analyses.”The connections between science and the slave trade could also feed into ongoing debates about reparations and the historical legacies of slavery. Like some U.K. organizations, U.S. universities such as Yale, Georgetown, and Brown have acknowledged how they benefited from slavery. For the most part, Murphy says, those conversations are framed “in terms of just dollars and cents, pounds and pence. Yet [the profits] can also clearly be measured in specimens collected and papers published.”Overall, she says, “Modern science and the transatlantic slave trade were two of the most important factors in the shaping of the modern world.” Historians are finally recognizing that they shaped each other as well. As Delbourgo says, “We’ve been so negligent in bringing these histories [of slavery and science] together. We’ve missed that they are in fact the same history.”last_img read more

US think tank shuts down prominent center that challenged climate science

first_imgThe Cato Institute headquarters in Washington, D.C. Email B. Christopher/Alamy Stock Photo By Scott Waldman, E&E NewsMay. 29, 2019 , 2:45 PM Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) “They informed me that they didn’t think their vision of a think tank was in the science business, and so I said, ‘OK, bye,’” Michaels said in an interview yesterday. “There had been some controversy going around the building for some time, so things got to a situation where they didn’t work out.”A spokeswoman said Cato’s shuttering of the Center for the Study of Science does not represent a shift in the institute’s position on human-caused climate change. But the think tank moved decisively to close down the science wing that was overseen by Michaels. Ryan Maue, a meteorologist and former adjunct scholar, also left the center.“While it is true that, with the departure of Pat Michaels, we have deactivated our Center for the Study of Science, we continue to work on science policy issues,” Khristine Brookes, the spokeswomen, wrote in an email. She didn’t mention climate change.Michaels is among a small number of academics with legitimate climate science credentials who downplay the human contribution to rising temperatures. He is a frequent guest on Fox News and other conservative outlets, and he has spent years attacking efforts to address climate change. He was influential in the administration of President George H.W. Bush, and he helped turn the GOP away from climate policy at a time when conservatives were embracing it (Climatewire, Dec. 5, 2018). That shift has endured.Cato also is no longer affiliated with Richard Lindzen, an emeritus professor of meteorology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who has long been critical of established climate science. Lindzen was a distinguished fellow at the think tank. It’s unclear when he left Cato, and Brookes declined to comment on personnel issues.Maue, who worked with Michaels, said other think tanks cultivated closer relationships with the Trump White House.“In terms of climate change and regulation, Cato was not a big player at all in the Trump administration,” he said.Michaels was not asked to take part in the White House plan for an “adversarial” review of climate science related to the National Climate Assessment. Michaels has been critical of government climate reports for decades and has published research in major scientific journals. Both of those are seen as attributes by recruiters in charge of finding experts for the White House panel.Michaels has spent years attacking climate modeling, which he claims ran hot, despite evidence from NASA that contradicted his claims and demonstrated that models were largely accurate. He has also portrayed academic researchers in climate-related fields as beholden to funding that incentivizes them to produce alarming research. The Cato Institute has received millions of dollars from the Koch network, the Mercer Family Foundation, Exxon Mobil Corp. and other foundations that oppose regulations.Maue said the Niskanen Center, which was founded by Cato alumnus Jerry Taylor, has attracted conservative followers with its middle-of-the-road climate policy. That’s appealing to businesses that help fund think tanks and to those that might support policy positions on climate in the post-Trump era, he said.“That’s attractive to business and politicians who don’t really want to see the climate flame wars continuing on,” Maue said in an interview. “I think many businesses have taken an approach to what’s going to happen and, assuming Trump isn’t around in 2021, what’s coming down the pike.”Still, Maue said that one of Michaels’ lasting contributions in the climate policy debate was to create a position where one can accept that humans are affecting the climate but not as much as the vast majority of scientists claim. It’s now a de facto position for many Republican lawmakers who acknowledge that humans are contributing to climate change but don’t want to restrict fossil fuel use.“Where Pat’s influence is is in the term ‘lukewarming,’” Maue said. “Lukewarming is not climate denial; it’s just that he’s taking, and most of us on this side of the issue believe in lower climate sensitivity. We don’t believe there’s going to be 5 degrees of warming; we figure it’s at the lower end of 1.5 degrees.”The vast majority of climate scientists believe that the world could warm 1.5 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels within the next two decades and accelerate through the end of the century, with some estimates placing warming above 5°C.Reprinted from Climatewire with permission from E&E News. Copyright 2019. E&E provides essential news for energy and environment professionals at www.eenews.net U.S. think tank shuts down prominent center that challenged climate science Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Originally published by E&E NewsThe Cato Institute in Washington, D.C., quietly shut down a program that for years sought to raise uncertainty about climate science, leaving the libertarian think tank co-founded by Charles Koch without an office dedicated to global warming.The move came after Pat Michaels, a climate scientist who rejects mainstream researchers’ concerns about rising temperatures, left Cato earlier this year amid disagreements with officials in the organization. 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Watch an elephant count simply by using its sense of smell

first_imgWatch an elephant ‘count’ simply by using its sense of smell The discovery makes sense, the scientists say, because elephants are known to have the highest number of genes associated with olfactory reception of any species (about 2000 versus dogs’ 811). They can distinguish between the scent of Maasai pastoralists and Kamba farmers, and rely on their sense of smell to navigate long distances to find food and water (up to 19.2 kilometers). The researchers hope their findings could help mitigate human-elephant conflicts in Asia and Africa, because wandering herds use odors to decide where to travel; enticing scents might help lure them away from agricultural fields, for instance. Email Most of us can look at two meal plates and easily tell which one has more food on it. But if someone turns out the lights, we’re out of luck. Not so for Asian elephants. A new study reveals that the pachyderms can judge food quantity merely by using their sense of smell, the first time an animal has been shown to do this.To conduct the research, scientists presented six Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) at an educational sanctuary in Thailand with two opaque, locked buckets containing 11 different ratios of sunflower seeds, a favorite treat. The elephants could not see how many seeds each bucket contained, but they could smell the contents through small holes in the lids.The animals chose the bucket with the greater quantity of food 59% to 82% of the time, the team reports today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (Even dogs, with their famed sense of smell, fail this test, other research has shown.) By Virginia MorellJun. 3, 2019 , 3:00 PMcenter_img Country * Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bahamas Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Belarus Belgium Belize Benin Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia, Plurinational State of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Territory Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cambodia Cameroon Canada Cape Verde Cayman Islands Central African Republic Chad Chile China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Colombia Comoros Congo Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Cook Islands Costa Rica Cote d’Ivoire Croatia Cuba Curaçao Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Djibouti Dominica Dominican Republic Ecuador Egypt El Salvador Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Estonia Ethiopia Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Faroe Islands Fiji Finland France French Guiana French Polynesia French Southern Territories Gabon Gambia Georgia Germany Ghana Gibraltar Greece Greenland Grenada Guadeloupe Guatemala Guernsey Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Haiti Heard Island and McDonald Islands Holy See (Vatican City State) Honduras Hungary Iceland India Indonesia Iran, Islamic Republic of Iraq Ireland Isle of Man Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jersey Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Republic of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Lao People’s Democratic Republic Latvia Lebanon Lesotho Liberia Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macao Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Madagascar Malawi Malaysia Maldives Mali Malta Martinique Mauritania Mauritius Mayotte Mexico Moldova, Republic of Monaco Mongolia Montenegro Montserrat Morocco Mozambique Myanmar Namibia Nauru Nepal Netherlands New Caledonia New Zealand Nicaragua Niger Nigeria Niue Norfolk Island Norway Oman Pakistan Palestine Panama Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Pitcairn Poland Portugal Qatar Reunion Romania Russian Federation Rwanda Saint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Martin (French part) Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa San Marino Sao Tome and Principe Saudi Arabia Senegal Serbia Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Sint Maarten (Dutch part) Slovakia Slovenia Solomon Islands Somalia South Africa South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands South Sudan Spain Sri Lanka Sudan Suriname Svalbard and Jan Mayen Swaziland Sweden Switzerland Syrian Arab Republic Taiwan Tajikistan Tanzania, United Republic of Thailand Timor-Leste Togo Tokelau Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Turkmenistan Turks and Caicos Islands Tuvalu Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Uruguay Uzbekistan Vanuatu Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of Vietnam Virgin Islands, British Wallis and Futuna Western Sahara Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe Click to view the privacy policy. Required fields are indicated by an asterisk (*) Sign up for our daily newsletter Get more great content like this delivered right to you! Countrylast_img read more

Christian Charity Received Mammoth Bones in a Donation Box

first_imgIn the Image (ITI) is a not-for-profit organization in Grand Rapids, Michigan. It began as a donation area in the damp, poorly lit basement of a Heartside District church and provided clothes, shoes, household goods, and other necessities to those in need. Over time, as both need and donations grew, the volunteer-run clothing program got too large to stay in its location. Using a $5,000 grant, the team obtained a small storefront, filed the paperwork to become an official organization, and In the Image was born.As word of the organization grew, donations came in from more and varied sources. These include not only private individuals, but also churches, companies, and consignment shops.The Grans River, Grand Rapids, MI.ITI’s continued growth prompted the organization to move again to their current location in Burton Heights, which was a small hamlet of its own before being annexed by Grand Rapids in 1910.Any charitable group must rely on private donors in order to keep costs as low as possible and maximize the services they can provide to their clients.Grand Rapids in 1910.Organizations often have lists available for potential donors, itemizing things that they need or really want, to ensure they keep running smoothly; but for the most part, it’s companies or other organizations that use those lists.Individuals tend to donate what they have to give, which can be less predictable. ITI experienced this in spades.According to The Grand Rapids Press, back in 2013, In the Image received some 12,000-year-old mastodon parts in a donation box. Jay Starkey, ITI’s director, said that at first they thought it looked like the broken parts of something.Restoration of an American mastodon. Photo by Sergiodlarosa CC BY-SA 3.0When examined more closely, the bits were believed to be a mastodon tooth, broken into two pieces, and the hollowed tip of a mastodon tusk, according to CBS News.All three pieces were coated in lacquer and are estimated to be between 12,000 and 15,000 years old. Starkey said that he has all sorts of questions, “I’d love to find out where this came from, and the history behind it.”No one has come forward with that information, however. Because the box wasn’t inspected at the time it was picked up, and ITI went to about eight houses that day, they have no way to know who donated the fossils or why.Mammut americanum, “Warren mastodon” specimen. Photo by Ryan Somma – Mammut americanum CC BY-SA 2.0Starkey also said that this was not the first time In the Image had received an odd donation. Finding drugs in donations is not uncommon. They also once received a $5,000 painting which they donated to a museum, and, maybe most oddly, once an urn with someone’s ashes inside.ITI isn’t unique in receiving the occasional odd donation, according to Nonprofit Quarterly. Volunteers of America once received an 8,000 lb., home-built, yellow submarine.Strange Ancient Places Around the worldA cancer research group in the UK was once given a live rabbit, and, on two other occasions, a box of cooked rice. Two different Salvation Army sites reported being given ordnance – one a missile launcher and the other an inactive hand grenade from WWII.Comparison of woolly mammoth (L) and American mastodon (R). Photo by Dantheman9758 CC BY-SA 3.0After wondering for a while what the donor imagined the mastodon artifacts could be used for, In the Image decided to donate them to the Grand Rapids Public Museum, which added them to its educational collection.The museum has a number of mastodon bones already on display in its general collection. The educational collection are pieces that can be loaned out to educators for teaching purposes.American mastodon molars.Mastodons were large, prehistoric elephant-like animals. They are known to have been spread over much of North America prior to their extinction.Read another story from us: Lost Native American Metropolis Discovered in KansasMlive reports that, even now, Mastodon skeletons turn up every so often around parts of Michigan. Dan Fisher, Director at the University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, estimates that discovery of mastodon or mammoth fossils occurs two to three time a year throughout the state.last_img read more

This 5500YearOld Leather Shoe is the Oldest Ever Discovered

first_imgThe oldest leather shoe known to archaeologists was found embedded in a pit of sheep droppings in a cave in Armenia and is around 5,500 years old, according to a report by the BBC. The so-called Areni-1 shoe is an example of early, basic footwear, which may have gone on to influence the development of other types of shoe design in the ancient world. According to LiveScience, anthropologists believe that humans started wearing shoes around 40,000 years ago, contributing to anatomical changes in human feet and limbs. However, we have very little idea of what these prehistoric shoes might have looked like.Entrance to the Areni-1 cave in southern Armenia near the town of Areni. The cave is the location of the world’s oldest known winery and where the world’s oldest known leather shoe has been found. Photo by Serouj CC BY 3.0Several pairs of rope sandals discovered by archaeologists in a cave in Oregon are thought to be the oldest footwear ever discovered, dating to approximately 8,000 BC. However, the oldest shoe, made from leather and featuring a closed toe, was found in a remote cave in Armenia in 2008. The shoe was excavated as part of a project led by archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia.The Areni-1 shoe. Photo by Pinhasi R, Gasparian B, Areshian G, Zardaryan D, Smith A, et al.  PLoS ONE 5(6): e10984. CC BY 2.5The team was exploring a cave known as Areni-1, in the Vayots Dzor region. Areni-1 contained a number of Neolithic and Copper Age remains, including food containers holding barley, wheat and apricots.The shoe itself was found inside a pit, perfectly preserved in the cool, dry conditions of the cave. It was cemented in with several layers of sheep droppings, which acted as a seal, protecting the contents of the pit from the air and water.Related Video:The Areni-1 shoe was made from a single piece of tanned leather from the hide of a cow. It was seamed at the front and the back and tied together with leather cords, and appears to have been made to measure.According to National Geographic, the leather was probably wrapped around the foot before stitching to ensure a tight fit. It corresponds to a size 7 (US) in modern footwear, and so could have conceivably been worn by either a man or a woman.The archaeological site of Areni-1 in 2012. Photo by Kiwiodysee CC BY-SA 2.0The shoe was also found stuffed full with grass. The archaeologists could not determine whether this was intended as a way to ensure that it held its shape while not being worn, or whether it was insulation designed to keep the wearer’s feet warm.The Areni-1 shoe was carbon dated to around 3,500 BC, making it the oldest footwear of its kind ever to be discovered. Shoes would have been particularly important to the Copper Age inhabitants of the cave, as the area around the site is well known for its rocky terrain, with sharp, pointed rocks and thorny plants.View from the Areni-1 cave. Photo by Serouj CC BY 3.0The shoe itself showed considerable signs of wear and tear, particularly at the heel and ball of the foot, suggesting that the wearer habitually walked very long distances.This assumption is further supported by the other items discovered in the cave including obsidian, thought to have been brought from a site over 75 miles away.According to National Geographic, the Areni-1 shoe appears to be an example of the earliest leather footwear designs, creating a basic prototype that would be exported throughout the region.Replica of the footwear worn by Ötzi The Iceman (about 5000-years-old) found in Alps. Photo by Josef Chlachula CC BY SA 2.0The shoe closely resembles other ancient shoes discovered in the Middle East and North Africa, and even draws comparison with traditional clothing from the Balkans and North Africa, which are still worn in festivals today. In particular, it bears close similarly to the opanke, a form of traditional Balkan footwear.The second oldest leather shoe discovered by archaeologists was found on Ötzi “the Iceman”, a mummified ancient man uncovered in the Austrian Alps and dating from between 3,400 and 3,100 BC.Reconstruction of Otzi the Iceman. Photo by Thilo Parg CC BY SA 3.0Ötzi’s shoe was significantly more sophisticated, comprising a bearskin base and deerskin side panels, pulled tight with a bark-string net. Dating just a few hundred years after the Areni-1 shoe, Ötzi’s shoe represents a significant leap forward in footwear design and technology.Read another story from us: Over 2000-Years-Old: The Oldest Human-Planted Tree In The WorldNevertheless, the Areni-1 shoe provides an important and extremely rare insight into the clothing and footwear worn by the Copper Age inhabitants of Armenia. Today it is on display in the History Museum of Armenia in Yerevan.last_img read more